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crossref-_sciencelineVolume 11 (4); July 28, 2021

32-Berseem_hay_Atriplex_or_silage_dry_yeastResearch Paper

Productive, nutritional, and physiological responses of Barki ewes to different types of roughages (Berseem hay, Atriplex or silage) and dry yeast during gestation and suckling periods. 

Kewan KhZ-A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(4): 109-125, 2021; pii: S222877012100018-11

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.18


The aim of study was to investigate the effect of different types of roughage (hay, green and silage) and yeast added to the barley grain on the productive performance of the Barki ewes during the gestation and suckling periods. Eighty-four Barki ewes, 3-4 years of age and 42.93±0.19 kg of average body weight, were randomly assigned to six groups (14 ewes in each) before the mating season. A factorial design was used for 3 × 2 treatments based on Berseem hay (BH), and either fresh Atriplex halimus (FA) or silage (AS) in the absence (Y-) or presence (Y+) of 5g/ewe/day of the dry yeast. All ewe groups recorded gain in their live body weight (LBW) during early and late gestation period. The highest loss in LBW was recorded for BH and Y+ during the suckling period. The AS was the highest consumed roughage followed by BH and then FA during the gestation and suckling periods. The addition of yeast (Y+) resulted a reduction of roughage intake than control one (Y-) during both gestation stages but the total milk yield (TMY) was significantly higher for BH followed by FA and AS. Also, Y+ significantly increased (P<0.05) the TMY (423) compared to Y- (384) treatment. Milk fat content was not affected by roughages type, yeast addition or their interaction. However, milk protein content was significantly higher for BH (5.14%) than the other types of roughage. Silage (AS) was better than other roughages in conversion efficiency to milk and also Y+ was better than Y-. Yeast addition to ewes diets increased birth weight of their lambs compared to un-supplemented one (Y-). It could be concluded that weaning weight relative to that in hay group was 93.6% and 80.4% for AS and FA, respectively. Generally, adding yeast to different roughage diets during suckling period led to a significant increase in weaning weight. Furthermore, the economic efficiency (EE) was higher (P<0.05) in both FA and AS compared to BH. Also, yeast addition (Y+) resulted in higher EE (P<0.05) in compared to Y-.
Keywords: Atriplex, Barki ewes, Lamb, Silage, Yeast.

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31-artificial_insemination_and_natural_service_in_sheepResearch Paper

Cost comparison of artificial insemination and natural service in sheep breeding system. 

Asaduzzaman M, Saha A, Alam MGS and Bari FY.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(4): 126-130, 2021; pii: S222877012100019-11

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.19


The cost information of animal breeding is a major concern in the farming system when making management and production system improvement decisions. Moreover, it is important to identify the most important cost positions and perspectives of the production process. This study is, therefore aimed to estimate, identify, and compare the cost contribution and breeding cost of artificial insemination (AI) vs. natural service in sheep production systems using frozen ram semen. Natural service by hand mating was performed to breed the ewes (n = 24) in estrus detected by a teaser ram maintained in a flock of 40 ewes. Artificial insemination was performed in synchronized ewes (n=10) after cervical ripening treatment using intramuscular injection of oxytocin. Breeding and performance costs were estimated by analyzing the cost associated factors. Per head insemination cost and cost per pregnancy in an artificial breeding program ($2.80 and $5.59) were higher than natural breeding program ($1.40 and $1.77) in sheep production. Ram depreciation cost, feed cost, and maintenance cost-shared the maximum cost in natural breeding, while the frozen semen cost, a special type of eccentric AI pipette cost, and hormone cost provoke the increased cost as the major constraints of the artificial breeding program. Minimizing the constraints and improving efforts in the conception rate of artificial insemination, farmers or producers will be benefited from natural breeding through rapid exploitation of the desired genetics cost-effectively.
Keywords: Artificial insemination, Cost comparison, Natural service, Semen, Sheep production.

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29-housefly_larvae_Musca_domesticus_meal_for_broilers_nutritionResearch Paper

Influence of the substrates on the productivity and the nutritional value of housefly larvae (Musca domesticus) meal for broilers nutrition. 

Noumbissi MNB, Tadjong RN, Tchakounte FM, Kana Y, Keyi R, Kana JR.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(4): 131-137, 2021; pii: S222877012100020-11

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.20


The present study was assigned to assess the production and nutritional value of maggots (housefly larvae, Musca domestica) meals produced in chicken droppings and pig slurry as substrates and their effects on growth performance and serological parameters of broiler chicks at the starter phase. A control ration without animal meal (R0) was compared to three other rations containing respectively 5% fishmeal (FM), blood meal (BM) and maggots (MA). The rations were randomly distributed to 4 groups (T0, FM, BM, and MA) of 56 chicks each. Slurry supplemented with bovine blood has been shown to be more productive than other substrates, with a maximum production of 246.75 g per 2 kg of substrate after five days of incubation. The highest average temperature (28.28 ± 3.43°C) was recorded in chicken droppings around 12 hours of the day. The pupae appear before the 10th day and breeding was no longer productive after the 15th day, both in hen droppings and in pig manure supplemented or not with blood. The humidity and temperature variations in the two substrates did not have any noticeable effects on the production and chemical composition of the maggots. Proximate analysis of maggot flour revealed a high content of protein (41-57%), ash (7.31-8.26%) and minerals such as phosphorus (5.25-5.55%), calcium (1.92-3.92%) and magnesium (7.04-7.92%). The growth performance and development of regulatory organs and digestive organs such as liver, kidneys, intestine, and bursa of Fabricius of the chicks were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, the production and nutritional value of maggots depend on the type and composition of the substrate and can be safely use as proteins sources in broilers at the starter phase of production.
Keywords: Animal manure, Broiler chicken, Fish meal, Maggot meal, Ration.

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1216-Buclizine_hydrochlorideResearch Paper

Effects of different levels of Buclizine hydrochloride for pigs during the growth and fattening phase

Ramòn R, Segura J, Herrera B, and Bayas-Morejòn F.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(4): 138-144, 2021; pii: S222877012100021-11

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.21


The Study aimed to determine the effect of Buclizine hydrochloride in the bristles diet at the growing and fattening stage and also determine the economic and cost-benefit output. The experimental design was a completely randomized block design (DBCA) with 4 treatments and 6 repetitions, a total of 24 experimental units, and landrace bristles with a live weight of ± 18 kg at the beginning of the investigation. Based on the results, the T3 treatment (Buclizine 0.050 mg/kg/animal/week) was the best level of Buclizina supplementation for both growing and fattening stages for efficiency and food conversion in treated animals. T3 treatment has the final weight of 53.83 ± 5 kg over T1 treatment which has the 48.5 ± 6 Kg over T2 and T4 which get totaled 47 Kg of final weight. The Economic efficacy of treatment T3 (Buclizine 0.050 mg/kg/animal/week) was in the level of best benefit ratio between the treatments. Regarding hematological alterations, there was no type of alteration at the renal or hepatic level, since the analysis of the blood biochemistry revealed a correct functioning of these organs. It’s concluded that using Buclizine hydrochloride in the level of 0.05 mg/kg/animal/week in pigs can be efficient in term of growing and fattening performance with economic efficacy.
Keywords: Appetite stimulant, Buclizine, Fattening animals, Food conversion, Pig.

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24-Methane_emission_factors_in_cattleResearch Paper

Methane emission factors from indigenous cattle breed in smallholder livestock production systems in Ethiopia

Tdesse M and Getahun K.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(4): 145-150, 2021; pii: S222877012100022-11

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.22


The objective of this study was to estimate methane (CH4) emission factor from enteric fermentation and manure management in indigenous cattle in Ethiopian highland using intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) tier 2 methodologies. A survey was conducted in 2018 using questionnaire regarding cattle management, feed and feeding system on 50 smallholder farmers in central Ethiopia. Information was also collected from literature and contact with federal and regional research institutions. This information was used as input in the IPCC tier 2 methodologies for estimation of CH4 emission factors for eight cattle sub-categories. Results indicated that enteric CH4 emission factors were estimated to be 65, 49, 37, 56, 66, 58, 63 and 11 for mature lactating cows, dry cows, heifers (2-3 years), growing females (1-2 years), draught oxen, mature breeding males, growing males (1-2 years) and calves (< 1 year), respectively. Manure management CH4 emission factors were 4.97, 3.77, 2.86, 4.33, 5.06, 4.47, 4.88 and 1.71 kg/head/year for mature lactating cows, dry cows, heifers (2-3 years), growing females (1-2 years), draught oxen, mature breeding males, growing males (1-2 years) and calves (< 1 year), respectively. The present estimate on enteric CH4 emission factor using tier 2 methodologies in present study ranged from 11 to 66 kg per head per year while manure management CH4 emission factor ranged from 1.71 to 5 kg per head per year. These values are higher than the IPCC 2006 tier 1 default values for African region. However, present work’s estimates are within a range of literature reports for other cattle in different countries. Further research is required to improve emission factors estimates using primary data on live weight, animal performance and feed characterization.
Keywords: Emission, Greenhouse gas, Livestock, Manure, Methane.

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1334-pineapple_peel_waste_on_egg_yolkResearch Paper

Effect of dietary inclusion of fermented pineapple peel waste on performance and egg yolk cholesterol level of laying hens

Adrizal, Hidayat N, Heryandi Y and Mahata ME.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 11(4): 151-156, 2021; pii: S222877012100023-11

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51227/ojafr.2021.23


The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented-pineapple peel waste (FPPW) with indigenous microorganisms (IMO) solution from bamboo sprout on performance and egg yolk cholesterol of laying hen ration. In this experiment, a total number of 200 ISA Brown laying hens with 32 weeks old with 70% egg production and average egg weight 58.58 g/egg were used. A completely randomized design was used in this experiment. Five different levels of supplementation with FPPW (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) were used in ration, and each treatment was replicated four times. The measured parameters were daily feed consumption, daily egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio (FCR),  and egg yolk cholesterol. The results indicated that FPPW with IMO solution from bamboo sprout as much as 20% reduced egg yolk cholesterol significantly , and did not affect daily feed consumption, daily egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and FCR significantly. It has been concluded that FPPW could be used up to 20% in laying hens rations without disrupting performance (daily feed consumption, hen day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio), and could reduce egg yolk cholesterol as much as 16.86%.
Keywords: Bamboo, Laying hens, Performance, Pineapple peel, Waste.

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