Volume 10, Issue 5: 216-230; September 25, 2020
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTHS
OF DOMESTIC RUMINANTS IN ETHIOPIA
Unit of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O.Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia
ABSTRACT: This systemic review was conducted to identify, critically assess, and bring together available data
from primary researches conducted so far on gastrointestinal (GI) helminthes of domestic ruminants in Ethiopia.
In the country, GI helminths of domestic ruminants have been identified; examined and informative statistics
has been extracted since a few decades ago. For this review, relevant articles were retrieved from English
databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scientific Information Database (SID).
Additional studies were recognized by scanning the African Journal Online (AJOL) that includes the Ethiopian
Veterinary Journal and Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. Out of retrieved (n=154) articles, thirty three
(n=37) articles which fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected. Accordingly, twenty three GI helminthes
species which belong to the three classes of helminthes have been found to occur in domestic ruminants in the
country. The main genera reported so far are Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum,
Bunostomum, Fasciola, Monezia and Paramphistomum whereas, Haemochus contortus, Moneizia expansa and
Fasciolahepatica are the most frequently reported species from Nematode, Cestode and Trematode classes
respectively. The overall GI helminths prevalence ranged from 2.3% to 100% were reported. Simple flotation,
sedimentation, modified McMaster technique and faecal culture are the most common and routine diagnostic
methods which have been used in the country. Management aspects like husbandry practices, climate and host
influences are found to be the principal contributing factors that affect GI helminths infections. So far, the
control of GI parasites in the country is mainly focusing on the use of anthelmintics. Consequently, due to the
lack of effective control strategies, antihelmintics are exclusively used which result in antihelmintics resistance.
Generally, occurrence, epidemiological features, realistic control strategies, common diagnostic procedures and
frequently encountered species are reviewed. Finally, the relevance of epidemiological knowledge and the
development of efficient, sustainable and conventional control measures which cover wider ago-climatic zones
of the country are suggested for controlling GI helminths infections and should be assessed timely.
Keywords: Anthelmintics, Domestic ruminant, Ethiopia, Gastrointestinal helminthes.
As a result of having different agro-ecological zones and favorable environmental situations in Ethiopia, the country is
believed to be endowed numerous livestock species and suitable for livestock production. It has the largest livestock
showed that about 54 million cattle, 25.5 million sheep and 24.06 million goats are found in the country. Of the total
cattle population, 98.95% are local breeds and the remaining are hybrid and exotic breeds. Furthermore, 99.8% of the
sheep and nearly all goat population of the country are local breeds (CSA, 2013).
However, diseases have numerous negative impacts on production and productivity. Among diverse animal diseases
encountered in the country, helminthes infections remain one of the most important limiting factors and a bottlenecking
production and productivity these days (Elsa et al., 2012). By chance, the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants harbors
variety of parasites particularly helminthes which can cause both clinical and subclinical parasitism. As stated by Lebbie
et al. (1994), GI helminthes infections are of a global concern for livestock industry, which have devastating impact in
Sub-Saharan Africa in general and in Ethiopia in particular as a result of wider range of agro-ecological factors which are
fitting for diversified hosts and parasite species. Hence, gastrointestinal (GI) helminthiasis has become among the most
important diseases encountered by livestock sector of Ethiopia and has been considered to be one of the major
constraints in the development of the sector (Regassa et al., 2006). In Ethiopia, helminthiasis is responsible for 25%
Citation: Fentahun T (2020). Systematic review on gastrointestinal helminths of domestic ruminants in Ethiopia. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(5): 216-230.