Volume 10, Issue 4: 180-184; July 27, 2020
INFLUENCE OF DIETARY MANIPULATIONS AND MILKING
FREQUENCY ON PRODUCTION OF DAIRY COWS
Asad Ali KHASKHELI
Department of Animal Nutrition, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando jam, Pakistan
ABSTRACT: Dairy cow responses to various types of diets differently and dairy farmers can use knowledge of its
behavior to improve the cow well-being and yield. This review was carried out in order to better understanding
the influence of dietary manipulation and milking frequency on the dairy cows’ production. The results obtained
from review of already conducted studies revealed that the dairy cow is significantly affected by composition,
quality, amount and regimes of the diet. Maximum daily milk production, milk protein, milk lactose, milk fat,
total solids are recorded in dairy cows when ad-libitum feed and water is provided. Further, sufficient water
intake is necessary for maintaining body fluids and proper ion balance, digestion, absorption, metabolization of
nutrients, elimination and body cooling. Feeding and water frequency stimulate the mammary functions and
milk synthesis, which is actually a non-invasive method. Reducing feeding frequency from 2x daily to 1x daily
decreases milk yield from 7 to 38% in dairy cows, however changing feeding frequency from 2x to 3x daily
results about 18% increase in milk production that can be economically acceptable. On the other hand,
increasing milking frequency from 2x to 3x daily increase milk production up to 30%. Therefore, in addition of
dietary manipulation and milking frequency, high quality feed and ad-libitum water plays always a key role for
improving the performance and production of dairy cows.
Keywords: Ad-libitum, Diet, Performance, Production.
Dairy cow responses to various types of diets differently and dairy farmers can use knowledge of animal behavior for
improving the well-being and yield of cow. For instance, feeding and watering systems must be placed appropriately.
Accessibility of feed and water may be more important than the actual amount of nutrients provided (Wilde et al., 1987;
Also, cow space, cow density, and distribution of feed and water are closely related factors. Feed intake and consequent
another might be stimulated to do likewise, whether she is hungry or not. This behavior is an example of social facilitation
when cows eat in groups; they eat more than when they are fed separately. Furthermore, cows kept in groups are likely to
be less fearful, and hence, more contented, healthier, and more productive. The common practice of feeding and milking
Water is an essential component to sustain life and optimize growth, lactation, and reproduction of dairy cattle.
However, unlike the careful and continuous attention paid by dairy producers and nutritionists to other nutrients in the
ration, oftentimes the quality and provision of free drinking water does not receive the attention necessary to ensure
optimal nutrition and cattle performance. In high producing dairy cows, the water requirement is greater compared other
contains 87% water. In addition, water is also used up in digestion, metabolism, circulation, excretion, ionic balance, fluid
cycle. Loss of even 20% water is considered fatal (Thokal et al., 2004). In order to produce optimum milk dairy cows must
drink sufficient amount of water and the feed. The quantity of water which a dairy cow would consume, is largely depends
on the environmental temperature, types of consumed feed, amount of milk production and the water temperature
(Tulloh, 1966). Water need is directly related to the dry matter intake. Increased intake of dry matter results increased
water consumption (Negrao et al., 2001). Keeping in view the importance of diet in life of dairy cow current study was
planned, whereby the main objective was to understand the dietary influence on dairy cows worldwide.
INFLUENCE OF WATER FREQUENCY ON THE PRODUCTION OF DAIRY COWS
Water constitutes 60 to 70 percent of the body of dairy cow. Water play role in the cows body such as ionic balance,
digesting, absorption, metabolization, excretion, maintaining body fluids balance, thermoregulation, transportation of
nutrients. The water need of cows is fulfilled by drinking and metabolic resources. Metabolic water is produced as a result
Citation: Khaskheli AA (2020). Influence of dietary manipulations and milking frequency on production of dairy cows. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(4): 180-184..